- scoring guides used to define criteria which will judge student performance.
They provide for increased consistency in the rating of performances, products and understandings as well as
giving students an established set of expectations about what will be assessed as well as the standards that need
to be met. Rubrics also protect students against evaluator's biases.
- Analytic Trait Scoring
Judges one performance/assignment several different times.
Goal: to identify an anchor that will serve as a guide for each aspect being assessed.
Example: Judging an essay for: grammar and punctuation, author's attention to audience
, definition of purpose and focus on the topic. Or judging teams for: group dynamics and group work habits.
- The Analytical (Diedrich) Scale:
An analytical scale, or checklist, is commonly used to determine whether the student provided specific information.
It is most appropriately used to assess answers to short essay questions.
- Holistic scale:
This scale is used to make quick determinations. A truly holistic scale is typically binary, e.g.,
"acceptable" vs. "unacceptable." Because of this, holistic scales are particularly well suited to screening
students during interviews.
- Primary trait scale:
This scale is used as a diagnostic tool to identify concepts students have mastered or are still
having difficulty with. Like holistic scales, primary trait scales provide an effective way to evaluate
a large number of assignments very quickly
Guidelines for Developing a Rubric
- Determine which concepts, skills, or performance standards you are assessing.
- List the concepts and rewrite them into statements which reflect both cognitive
and performance components.
- Identify the most important concepts or skills being assessed in the task.
- On the basis of the purpose of the task, determine the number of points to be used
for the rubric (example: 4-point scale or 6-point scale).
- Starting with the desired performance, determine the description for each score
remembering to use the importance of each element of the task or performance to determine the score or level
of the rubric.
- Compare student work to the rubric. Record the elements that caused you
to assign a given rating to the work.
- Revise the rubric descriptions based on performance elements reflected
by the student work that you did not capture in your draft rubric.
- Rethink your scale: Does a [ ]-point scale differentiate enough between
types of student work to satisfy you?
- Adjust the scale if necessary. Reassess student work and score it against
the developing rubric.
Some Sample Rubrics
4 - Draws a conclusion that is
supported by the data and gives supporting evidence for the conclusion.
2 - Draws a conclusion that is supported
by data, but fails to show any evidence for the conclusion.
1 - Draws a conclusion that is not
supported by data.
0 - Fails to reach a conclusion.
4 - The student actively listens
to and values the opinion of others.
3 - The student actively listens
to but it is not evident that he/she values the opinion of others.
2 - The student listens to but
does not value the opinion of others. OR The student values the opinion of others but does not listen to them.
0 - The student does not listen
to and does not value the opinion of others.
6 - The product shows evidence
that the student reached valid conclusions based on data analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in
4 - The product shows evidence
that the student reached valid conclusions based on data analysis but displayed the results of the analysis in
2 - The product shows evidence
that the student reached conclusions not based on data analysis and displayed the results of the analysis in
appropriate formats. OR The product shows evidence that the student reached valid conclusions based on data
analysis but lacked evidence of the analysis.
0 - The product shows no
evidence of analysis.